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SPIDER VEINS: These are very fine blood vessels visible as a spidery pattern just under the surface of the skin. They are a few millimeters or centimeters in length and arranged in a fan pattern. Spider-veins rarely cause complaints and are mostly only a cosmetic nuisance. However, they can be a warning signal of varicose veins below.
VARICOSE VEINS: The ongoing flow of blood from the heart to the body and back to the heart again is called circulation. Arteries are the vessels that deliver blood to your body. Veins are the vessels that return blood to the heart. Veins have cup like flaps called valves spaced along their inside walls. Valves open upward, so blood can move up the vein. When valves close, they keep blood from falling back down the vein. Some times these valves become inefficient, the walls of the veins loose their elasticity, dilated out of proportion and become these conditions is known as varicose veins.
INFLAMMATION OF THE VEINS (PHLEBITIS): The signs of inflamed veins are a marked reddening, swelling, overheating and severe pain along the course of the vein.
DVT (Deep Vein Thrombosis) : The formation of a thrombus (clot) in the deep vein of the leg is called Deep Vein Thrombosis. A thrombus in the deep vein obstructs the flow of blood from legs towards the heart. This problem not only causes a lot of pain, swelling and discomfort but can also be a major risk if part of the clot breaks off and travels to lungs (pulmonary Embolism)
  Swelling Heaviness in the Leg Tenderness in the calf, thigh Pain and tightness in the calf Local raise of skin temperature
  Immobilisation Surgery, Trauma, Pregnancy Puerperium, Lupus anticoagulant Malignant Disease and female hormones.
Leg elevation to reduce swelling
Graduated compression stockings will help the circulation and reduce swelling. Otherwise lead to chronic venous insufficiency.
C.V.I.(Chronic Venous Insufficiency) : When damaged valves or D.V.T. causes on going legs swellings, blood beings to pool in the veins. This eventually causes C.V.I. C.V.I. can’t be cured, but you can limit how much it harms your health. Do this by controlling leg swelling to reduce the likelihood of ulcers (open wounds).
SYMPTOMS: if you stand or sit with your feet down for long periods, your legs may ache or feel heavy.
SWOLLEN ANKLE: As swelling increases, the skin over your ankles may show red spots or brownish tings.The skin may feel leathery or scaly, and may start to itch. If swelling is not control, an ulcer may from
What can you do: Vein disorders are incurable, but you can prevent further progression of the disorder and improve your quality of life.
What are the first signs of venous disease
Tired legs, swollen ankles, tingling and itching, or stabbing pain in the legs may be the first signs of varicose veins developing, even before anything is to be seen.
Because the blood is no longer flowing back to the heart quickly enough water from the veins escapes into the surrounding tissue. Swelling occurs, especially around the ankles. If you notice such swelling every evening, regardless of what you were doing during the day, it is very likely that your veins are already damaged. If you can see swellings on the surface of your skin, you already have superficial varicose veins.
If the return flow of blood to the heart is impaired there is a greater danger of blood clots (thrombus) forming on the vessel walls. These clots block the vein and thus prevent the return flow of blood. Further damage to the venous system is incurred. The first signs are swelling of lower part of the leg, which may be accompanied by overheating, pain and a feeling of heaviness. Treatment by a doctor is imperative, as it can lead to a clot entering the lungs which can be a life threatening pulmonary embolism.
Open leg ulcer (leg ulcer)
Because the oxygen-deficient blood in the veins is not transported away, the exchange of nutrients and waste products is impaired. This leads to cells being seriously damaged and tissue dying off. Chronic wounds can be the result. Healing these type of chronic wounds is linked to addressing the cause of the condition namely distended varicose veins.
Controlling vein problems by:
Elevate your legs   Leg exercises daily
Maintain a normal weight   At night or while resting during the day,
   Lie comfortably with the legs slightly raised (15-20 cms from the heart level)
Avoid standing for long periods   When you have to sit for a long time constantly move the feet up and down.
Use graduated custom made compression stockings   Consult your vascular surgeon.
  Lie on your back breathing slowly; stretch and bend your feet one after the other.
Repeat this exercise up to 20 times.
  Lie on your back breathing slowly; push hard against the end of the bed with your ankle and ball of the foot, one foot after the other.
Repeat this exercise up to 10 times.
  Lie on your back breathing slowly; both arms laying by your side. Lift your legs up high and let them down again slowly one after the other.
Repeat this exercise up to 10 times.
  Lie on your back breathing slowly; put your hands with your fingers linked under your head and “pedal” with your legs. One after the other lift your knee up – stretch – and lower again slowly.
Repeat this exercise up to 15 times.
  Stand with your feet apart and your arms hanging by your side. As you breathe out slowly raise your arms and stand on tiptoe. Breath in and returns to the starting position.
Repeat this exercise up to 20 times.
Class – I Anti Embolism stocking for bed ridden.
Class – II Varicose Veins / Mild DVT
Class – III DVT/ Lymphodema / Filarisas / Ulcer stocking for ulcer.